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Monopodial-excurrent stem

Formal name:  shoot monopodial-excurrent stem
Local identifier:  TOP145
Definition:  a shoot system (PO:shoot system) that has a single main stem (PO:stem) extending up to, or almost to, the top of the plant (PO:whole plant), with shorter, ascending or horizontal branches (PO:branch) giving a conical or columnar form to the crown
Formal Unit:  unitless (category)

Comment:  monopodial-excurrent stem is used in the context of the trait plant growth form (TOP:plant growth form)
Reference:  Pérez-Harguindeguy N., Díaz S., Garnier E., Lavorel S., Poorter H., Jaureguiberry P., Bret-Harte M. S., Cornwell W. K., Craine J. M., Gurvich D. E., Urcelay C., Veneklaas E. J., Reich P. B., Poorter L., Wright I. J., Ray P., Enrico L., Pausas J. G., de Vos A. C., Buchmann N., Funes G., Quétier F., Hodgson J. G., Thompson K., Morgan H. D., ter Steege H., van der Heijden M. G. A., Sack L., Blonder B., Poschlod P., Vaieretti M. V., Conti G., Staver A. C., Aquino S., Cornelissen J. H. C. (2013) New handbook for standardised measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany 61, 167_234 (adapted)